Following its announcements last year regarding a 2050 net-zero greenhouse gas emissions target and a high-level strategy to achieve net-zero, the Japanese government has released a new target to achieve demand of 3 million tonnes/year of ammonia by 2030, and 30 million tonnes annually by 2050. In pursuing the 2030 target, it will create supply chains and associated supporting infrastructure which would then be able to grow as demand for the fuel also expands to push for the 2050 target. Most of the 1.08 million tonnes of ammonia currently used in Japan each year (as fertiliser and for some industrial applications) is produced locally, but it is anticipated that imports will ramp up over the next decade, as coal-fired plants might burn up to 20% ammonia, equivalent to something like 0.5 million tonnes per plant. Ammonia-powered shipping is also on the agenda, with a target date of 2028 for the first ship, and the government wishes to help reduce the cost of ammonia down from the present 20-25 yen/normal cubic metre (€0.158-0.197/US$0.191-0.239) to 15-20 yen. JERA (the joint venture between Tokyo Electric Power Company and Chubu Electric Power) is to begin trialling firing ammonia with coal in a pilot program by October this year.