• G108/y/2 – Non-Isothermal CFD Model of the HEC Furnace and Burners

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Today we are publishing the second CFD modelling report in the IFRF Members supported High Efficiency Combustion programme:

IFRF Document No.: G108/y/2
Non-Isothermal CFD Model of the HEC Furnace and Burners 

G108/y/2 can now be downloaded by IFRF registered Individual Members, from:


All other planning, commissioning, study and research reports already published in this series can also be downloaded from this site.

This report is prepared by Rene Hekkens in co-operation with former IFRF Investigator, Marco Mancini, now with the University of Clausthal. 

G108/y/2 is the second of two reports dealing with the CFD modelling of a high temperature furnace fired by a pair of compact regenerative burners operating in the ‘flameless’ mode. The report describes the configuration and validation of two non-isothermal CFD models used to simulate:

  • The air and fuel flow through one of a pair of NFK compact regenerative burners operating in a ‘flameless ‘ mode
  • The flow, mixing and combustion taking place in the IFRF’s HEC furnace when fired with the above burner

Although the two models are independent, the output conditions at the exit of the burner model form the input conditions for the air and fuel jets entering the furnace model. A comprehensive description of the model configurations adopted is given in G108/y/1. Further details of the furnace and burner geometry are available in the HEC Planning report (D108/y/1) and the HEC Furnace Commissioning reports (C108/y/1 and C108/y/2).

In this report, detailed information is presented on the transport equations used in a combusting flow, and on several combustion sub models tested against the experimental data:

  • Probability Density Function (PDF) equilibrium combustion model
  • Probability Density Function (PDF)  flamelet model
  • Eddy Break Up (EBU) model tuned by the IFRF for Natural Gas combustion.
  • Eddy Dissipation Combustion (EDC) model

The approach to radiation modelling for flameless firing is also described.

Direct comparisons are made with measured in-flame data (See IFRF Report F108/y/1, and new data presented within the body of this report) for these four combustion sub-models. The comparisons are quite extensive, based on velocities temperatures and species, including NOx.

All HEC reports cited in this summary are available to IFRF Members as downloads from: