New analysis by the Austria-based International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) has outlined a number of ways that the world might limit average global temperature rises to 1.5oC. The research is notable in looking at a range of socioeconomic conditions such as population growth and economic inequality, as well as factors such as energy demand and international cooperation. Common to most of the pathways to achieving a limitation of 1.5oC are a rapid uptake of renewable energies and better energy efficiency, removal of CO2 from the atmosphere, the use of carbon capture and storage (or utilisation), and sustainable economic development – economic inequalities would tend to produce “low levels of innovation and productivity”. In most scenarios, peak greenhouse gas emissions occur by 2030, traditional coal firing (without CCS) falls to 20% of what it currently is by 2040, and oil use is phased out by 2060. The researchers hope that the analysis will form the basis of more modelling work to inform policy setting across the world.